Sickle cell disease an overview essay

This chapter will focus on the contributions of intravital studies to the understanding of the vaso-occlusive processes in this disease, with emphasis on erythrocytic and microvascular factors.

Sickle-cell disease

This single-point mutation leads to the polymerization of the mutant hemoglobin sickle hemoglobin or HbS molecule and red cell sickling under deoxygenated conditions.

Furthermore, the possible shortcomings include; their limited number, small sample size, variable tools, retrospective design, and the sample representativeness.

The seminal discovery in that sickle red cells exhibited an increased propensity of adhesion to vascular endothelial cells [1] led to the recognition that vascular factors played a critical role in vaso-occlusion. This view was largely based on the abnormal in vitro rheological behavior of deoxygenated sickled cells.

Activities include campaigns to build awareness of SCD and related conditions, educational health fairs, camps for children with SCD, genetic trait testing and follow-up counseling, referral networks, scholarship programs and other special activities.

SCD mortality data are so limited in Saudi Arabia. However, various regional studies with different study populations showed different prevalence rates.

Hydroxyurea acts by elevating the level of HbF, which will eventually leads to decrease in the sickle cell crises. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Health work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

Encourage adequate support for research activities leading to improved treatment and eventual cure. The pleiotropic and epistatic effects have been subjects of excellent reviews [6,8—10].

Moreover, there is no particular protocol for screening depression. Other examples of epistatic polymorphic genes are the genes involved in making sickle red cells denser i.

Membership Review Committee The Membership Review Committee will advise the Board of Directors on all matters relating to Membership and shall make recommendations for the acceptance of Membership in the Association.

The milder form is commonly noticed in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. SCDAA continues to recognize how critical it is to garner the needed support for the social and public health aspects of SCD as fundamentals to a comprehensive plan that meet the needs of this population.

SCDAA advocates for national initiatives to provide genetic counseling, newborn SCD screening, infant and pre-natal care, pediatric care, and an increased number of adult facilities with expertise in SCD.

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Assist in the organization and development of local chapters. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

While the Canadian guidelines were against the routine screening, the guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence NICE propose targeted screening for individuals at high risk of developing depression, such as those with past history of depression, and chronic medical conditions e.

Provide ongoing technical assistance to members and other interested groups or organizations. Prepare and distribute substantive educational materials, written and visual, about the sickle cell disease problem for all relevant segments of our society. Subsequently, important discoveries and rapid advances in vascular biology, especially studies of the vascular endothelium, have radically altered our understanding of vaso-occlusive processes in this disease.

About this resource This Health essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. SCDAA has recognized that one agency cannot meet all the needs and challenges of those living with sickle cell disease SCD and their families.

Overview of sickle cell disease Essay: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines, as an example, recommended that individual with high risk must be offered screening, and couples with risk to have a diseased child must be offered genetic counseling.

In contrast to the normal hemoglobin, hemoglobin S polymerizes in case of deoxygenation causing the change of the erythrocytes shape into sickle-like shape. The unmasking of vascular dysfunction in sickle cell disease has been singularly aided by novel discoveries of endothelial vasoactive molecules, especially nitric oxide NOand identification of an array of adhesion molecules expressed by activated endothelium that mediate increased red cell adhesion and inflammatory responses in this disease.

In the developing paradigm, the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease is attributed not only to intracellular polymer formation and sickling, but increasingly to microvascular and hemodynamic abnormalities inflicted by abnormal adhesion of sickle red cells to endothelium, reperfusion injury caused by transient occlusive events, leukocyte recruitment, endothelial activation and vascular tone instability [2—5].

Human sickle cell patients show variable expression of HbF and patients with higher HbF levels have a milder phenotype. Awards Committee The Awards Committee addresses the awards given to individuals with sickle cell disease.

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The above account serves to underscore the fact that the primary genetic defect and the modifying effects of polymorphic genes determine the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease, specifically the occurrence of a painful vaso-occlusive episode and other sequelae.

However, most of the studies that found a positive association recommended psychiatric evaluation and intervention for those patients and asked for further research. Major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and minor depressive disorder are some of numerous depression subtypes reported in the literature.

Public Health Education To promote public awareness and education, SCDAA publications include a newsletter, a website and a wide array of educational materials many translated into Spanish and French Creole to help educate parents on taking care of their children with the disease, and teach affected individuals how to manage their disease.

Despite the alarming rates of depression in Saudi Arabia, there is limited data about the rate of depression in the general population. The leader promoting and advancing initiatives focused on people affected by sickle cell conditions worldwide.

In addition, the results of the former study demonstrated that the DALYs from depression have been increased since Sickle-cell disease. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a disorder of chronic hemolytic anemia and microvascular occlusion involving the Hb S mutation in. These cells, sickle cells, die early which causes a shortage of red blood cells continuously.

People with SCD carry the trait for sickle cell disease and could potentially pass it on to their offspring. According to the CDC, people at high risk for sickle cell disease are those who ancestors come from Africa, South or Central America, the Caribbean.

Sickle Cell Disease: An Overview Sickle Cell Disease is a genetic disorder in which the body produces sickled shaped red blood cells. In sickle cell disease, or SCD, the hemoglobin in red blood cells groups together. Sickle Cell Disease is a genetic disorder in which the body produces sickled shaped red blood cells.

In sickle cell disease, or SCD, the hemoglobin in red blood cells groups together. This causes red blood cells to become stiff and C-shaped. These sickled cells prevent blood and oxygen flow in blood. SCD is one of the most common genetic conditions of the blood characterized by chronic hemolysis and acute, potentially life-threatening complications.

[2] It includes SCA. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us.

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Sickle cell disease an overview essay
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